What is Injection?

Injection is a method of applying amendments to the subsurface at specified depths or intervals, which ensures the targeted zone contaminants come in contact to be treated. The mechanism of remediation depends on what is injected. The most common uses of injection include in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), chemical reduction (ISCR), bioremediation (ISB) and sequestration (ISS).

ISCO is a technology appropriate for soil or groundwater remediation, and is applied by injecting liquid chemical oxidants into the contaminated area.  

ISCR is a related remediation technology, and is also suited for addressing both soil and groundwater contamination. ISCR remediation is undertaken by injecting liquid, chemically reductive additives to the contaminated area, or alternately by injecting chemical reductants in a solid slurry form.  

Bioremediation involves injecting amendments and/or bacteria into the subsurface, and allowing them to break down the contaminants.  

Sequestration involves injection of sorptive media (e.g. activated carbon) that sorbs contaminants in the dissolved phase as well as providing favorable conditions for synergistic bacterial growth.


Injection Remediation Services

Injections require specialized and compatible equipment. It’s also important to minimize chemical exposure to operators and other on-site personnel during injection. Strict safety protocols are required and included in an overall site specific health and safety plan (HASP).

Based on hundreds of past injection projects, Cascade offers in-house capabilities to support clients with dosing and distribution designs. This ensures contact while taking into consideration residence times, reaction kinetics and site hydraulics. Our custom mixing and injection equipment offer safe and effective delivery for optimal contact with subsurface contaminants.

We provide clients with…

  • Design Optimization Testing (DOT) to optimize full-scale implementation
  • Targeted High Resolution design support
  • Amendment procurement and/or handling


Injection Remediation Technologies

Cascade has applied all the commercially available amendments. We leverage our economies of scale to work with a number of industry leading suppliers to offer the most and best options.

  • In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)
  • In situ chemical reduction (ISCR)
  • In situ bioremediation (ISB)
  • In situ sequestration (ISS)

Injection Remediation Applications

  • Treatment of Source Areas and Plumes for Following Contaminants
    • Chlorinated Solvents
    • Petroleum Contaminants
    • Hazardous Metals
  • Treatment of Source Areas and Plumes to Achieve Following Remediation Goals.
    • Mass and Flux Reduction
    • Transition to Long Term MNA
    • Risk Based Standards
    • MCLs
  • Treatment of Contaminated Sites at Public and Private Sector Sites including
    • DOD Bases
    • State and Federal Superfund Sites
    • Gas Stations
    • Dry Cleaners
    • Manufacturing
    • Petrochemical
  • Brownfields

Related Resources